Journal ArticlesAre alternative livelihood projects effective at reducing local threats to specified elements of biodiversity and/or improving or maintaining the conservation status of those elements? A systematic review protocol
Background Strategies designed to alleviate threats to biodiversity have been applied at a variety of scales from local to glo- bal. Recent attention has focused on global and regional scales due to concerns about the impacts of climate change and large-scale habitat loss. However, there has also been considerable investment in strategies designed for implementation at the local level. Many of these strat- egies have targeted the actions of people living in and around protected areas or other areas of biodiversity im- portance, and have consisted of both negative and positive incentives to change people ’ s attitudes and behaviour. These incentives are intended to reduce or cease people ’ s exploitation of components of biodiversity that are of con- servation concern. Commonly-used disincentives include resource access restrictions, with penalties imposed if re- strictions are not adhered to; increased law enforcement; and land/resource use zoning. Frequently-used positive incentives include payments for ecosystem services and other compensatory mechanisms, and so-called “ alterna- tive livelihoods projects ” , which are the focus of this review.